Journal of Hazardous Materials
VEPIKA KANDJOU; ANA M. PEREZ-MAS; B. ACEVEDO; M. HERNAEZ; ANDREW G. MAYES, SONIA MELENDI-ESPINA.
Dip coating and Layer-by-layer have been proven as effective deposition methods.
Uncrosslinked and PPD crosslinked GO membranes have been successfully fabricated.
Crosslinker impact is significant in enhanced membrane separation performance.
Up to 100% MB contaminant removal was achieved for crosslinked membranes.
PPD-GO crosslinked membranes are suitable to reuse for multiple cycles
Keywords: Graphene oxide; Dip coating; Layer-by-layer; Crosslinker; Rejection; Methylene blue
The increasing depletion of freshwater necessitates the re-use and purification of wastewaters. Among the existing separation membrane materials, graphene oxide (GO) is a promising candidate, owing to its tunable physicochemical properties. However, the widening of GO membranes pore gap in aqueous environments is a major limitation. Crosslinking agents can be incorporated to alleviate this problem. This study describes a comparative analysis of uncrosslinked and p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) crosslinked GO membranes’ water purification performance. Dip-coating and dip-assisted layer-by-layer methods were used to fabricate the uncrosslinked and crosslinked membranes respectively. The covalent interaction between GO and PPD was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infra-Red and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The excellent membrane topographical continuity and intactness was assessed by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy, while water contact angle measurements were undertaken to evaluate and confirm membrane hydrophilicity. The improvement impact of the crosslinker was manifested on the enhancement of the stability and performance of the membranes during nanofiltration tests of aqueous solutions of methylene blue in a homemade nanofiltration cell operated at 1 bar.
A bath type sonicator (Fisherbrand FB1505, Elmasonic S30H) enhanced the dispersion of the GO water suspensions and the membranes were fabricated with a rotary dip-coater device (Nadetech Innovations, Spain).