Most volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are toxic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic, and can have serious effects on human health and the ecological environment. Therefore, the detection and identification of VOCs have an urgent need in both indoor and outdoor environments. Fiber optic sensors, as intrinsically safe, miniature, portable, immune to electromagnetic interference, and easy to remote sensing and multiplexing sensing technology, are utilized in VOC gas sensing promising to provide new approaches to overcome the limitations of conventional gas sensing systems. This review assesses recent research advances in fiber optic VOC gas sensors, including various sensing principles, gas-responsive materials, new techniques for sensing material deposition, structures, and applications. Fiber optic VOC gas sensors are classified and discussed based on different principles. In addition, this paper extensively reviews the recent advances in fiber optic VOC gas sensors and discusses the strategies and approaches to further their development.