Photo-memristive sensing with charge storing 2D carbon nitrides


We report the charge storing 2D carbon nitride potassium poly(heptazine imide), K-PHI, as a direct memristive (bio)sensing platform. Memristive devices have the potential to innovate current (bio)electronic systems such as photo-electrochemical sensors by incorporating new sensing capabilities including non-invasive, wireless remote and time-delayed (memory) readout. We demonstrate a direct photomemristive sensing platform that capitalizes on K-PHI’s visible light bandgap, large oxidation potential and intrinsic optoionic light energy storage properties. Our system simultaneously enables analyte concentration information storage as well as potentiometric, impedimetric and coulometric readouts on the same material, with no additional reagents required. Utilizing the light-induced charge storage function of K-PHI, we demonstrate analyte sensing via charge accumulation and present various methods to write/erase this information from the material. Additionally, fully wireless colorimetric and fluorometric detection of the charged state of K-PHI is demonstrated and could facilitate its use as particle-based in-situ sensing probe. The various readout options of the K-PHI’s response enable us to adapt the sensitivities and dynamic ranges without modifying the sensor. We demonstrate these features using glucose as an example analyte over a wide range of concentrations (50 µM to 50 mM). Moreover, due to the strong oxidative power of K-PHI, this sensing 2 platform is able to detect a large variety of organic or biologically relevant analytes. Since PHI is easily synthesized, based on earth abundant precursors, biocompatible, chemically robust and responsive to visible light, we anticipate that the sensing platform presented herein opens up novel memristive and neuromorphic functions.

Preparation of the sensor films and suspensions.

Thin films of K-PHI nanoparticles were deposited onto FTO substrates (Sigma Aldrich, surface resistivity of 7 Ω/cm2 ) via dip coating with 400 dips, 100 mm/min extraction speed and 120 s drying time at ambient temperature between the dips (ND-R Rotary Dip Coater, Nadetech).


Keywords: Carbon nitride; Poly(heptazine imide); Sensor; Photomemristor; Optoionics; Solar battery